Actinide elements

The series of elements beginning with actinium (atomic number 89) and including thorium, protactinium, uranium, and the transuranium el­ements through the element lawrencium (atomic number 103). These elements have a strong chemical resemblance to the lanthanide, or rare-earth, elements of atomic numbers 57 to 71. Their atomic numbers, names, and chemical symbols are: 89, ac­tinium (Ac), the prototype element, sometimes not included as an actual member of the actinide series; 90, thorium (Th); 91, protactinium (Pa); 92, uranium (U); 93, neptu­nium (Np); 94, plutonium (Pu); 95, americium (Am); 96, curium (Cm); 97, berkelium (Bk); 98, californium (Cf); 99, einsteinium (Es); 100, fermium (Fm); 101, mendelevium (Md); 102, nobelium (No); 103, lawrencium (Lr). Except for thorium and uranium, the actinide elements are not present in nature in appreciable quantities. The transuranium elements were discovered and investigated as a result of their synthesis in nuclear re­actions. All are radioactive and except for thorium and uranium, weighable amounts must be handled with special precautions.

Most actinide elements have the following in common: trivalent cations which form complex ions and organic chelates; soluble sulfates, nitrates, halides, perchlorates, and sulfides; and acid-insoluble fluorides and oxalates.

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